Keloid Scar

When the skin is wounded, fibrous tissue known as scar tissue grows over the wound to heal and protect it. Extra scar tissue can develop and create keloids, which are smooth, hard growths.

Keloids can grow to be several times the size of the initial incision. The chest, shoulders, earlobes, and cheeks are the most usual places to find them. Keloids, on the other hand, can affect any area of the body.

Everything you should know about Keloid/Hypertrophic scar

A keloid scar is a strong, smooth, hard growth that forms as a result of a spontaneous scar. It might emerge immediately following an accident or months afterward. Keloids can be bothersome or irritating, and they can spread well beyond the incision site. They can appear anywhere on the body, but they’re more common in the upper chest and shoulders.

The exact reason why wound healing might result in keloid development is yet unknown.

While the majority of people never acquire keloids, some do so as a result of minor traumas, burns, bug bites, or acne. Keloids are more common in dark-skinned persons than they are in Caucasians.

A keloid isn’t harmful to your health and won’t turn into skin cancer.

Scar tissue grows when wounds heal, and it is frequently red and noticeable at first. A scar normally turns flat and pale after a few months. When a healing wound is under a lot of strain, the healing region becomes thicker than usual. A hypertrophic scar is what this is called. A hypertrophic scar only affects the skin that has been injured.

Keloids are the result of scar tissue proliferation. Keloid scars are often bigger than the initial wound. It might take weeks or months for them to fully grow.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms of a keloid:

  • A flesh-colored, pink, or red region that is localized
  • A ridged or bumpy patch of skin that is generally elevated
  • A scarred region that continues to develop in size over time
  • A rash or itching skin

Keloid scars are irritating, but they aren’t generally damaging to your health. Your clothes or other types of friction may cause you to feel uncomfortable, sore, or irritated.

Large regions of your body can develop keloid scarring, though this is uncommon. The rigid, rigid scar tissue that forms, as a result, may impede mobility.

Keloids are more typically an aesthetic issue than a health one. If the keloid is big or in a highly visible position, such as on an earlobe or the face, you may feel self-conscious.

As a result of aberrant wound healing, keloid development occurs. Keloids are one of the most difficult dermatologic disorders to treat, despite their significant frequency in the general population. They are more than just a cosmetic annoyance; they are frequently symptomatic and can have a substantial emotional impact on the sufferer. Even though there are a variety of therapeutic options available, no single treatment has been demonstrated to be universally successful. Recurrence after therapy is rather common. Combination treatment is most likely the best option. The clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, and therapy of keloids are discussed in this article.

Treatment costs somewhere between Rs. 30,000 and Rs. 50,000 approx.

With ongoing treatments with steroid injections, radiation, or surgery, the scar tissues turn red and diminish in around 6 to 8 weeks.

Small keloids are easily treated with a number of different methods. Usually, the safest and most basic therapy is a series of steroidal injections into the afflicted region. The patient should be aware that the scar tissue never disappears altogether but is likely to become flatter and less symptomatic. Greater lesions are harder to cure.

Scarring, burning sensations, redness of the treated region, swelling, or moderate to severe irritation similar to sunburn are all common adverse effects. A change in skin pigmentation may occur as a result of uncommon side effects.

Listed below are some myths and their clarification about keloid.

  • Scars on black skin with keloid scars

The keloid is not a biologically homogeneous entity. It is more common in black and yellow people, and less common in white people. The findings of the study are still being assessed. The greatest way to avoid a scar is to avoid it altogether.

  • Keloids are infectious

Keloids aren’t infectious, so don’t worry. Keloids are nothing more than a clumped-up development of surplus cells in a specific location, which is more than enough to prove that they are not contagious and do not transfer from person to person. It’s merely a build-up of scar tissue that gives the appearance of being inflamed.

Keloids are frequently mistaken for hypertrophic scars, which are a more prevalent type of scar. These are flat scars that range in hue from pink to brown. Hypertrophic scars, unlike keloids, are smaller and can go away on their own.

Hypertrophic scars affect both men and women of all races and ethnicities, and they’re frequently produced by physical or chemical damage like piercings.

Fresh hypertrophic scars can be itchy and uncomfortable at first, but as the skin heals, the symptoms fade.

A hypertrophic scar and a keloid scar are both examples of aberrant dermis scarring (skin).

Scars with keloid growths

  • Are frequently elevated above the skin’s surface by more than 4 mm.
  • Lesions usually expand beyond the limits of a wound.
  • It’s possible that it’ll continue to develop over time.
  • The shoulders, cheekbones, upper back, and chest are the most commonly affected areas.
  • After three months or so, make an appearance.
  • Have a significant incidence of recurrence following therapy

Hypertrophic Scars

  • Rarely rise more than 4 mm beyond the surface of the skin.
  • Are typically neater and merely cover the circle of the wound.
  • It can manifest itself in any portion of the body.
  • Over time, they usually fade a little.
  • Within one month, make an appearance


Treatments with Therapies and Lasers

Your doctor may offer laser therapy for specific types of scars (including certain keloids). This therapy uses high-powered light to resurface the keloid and surrounding skin, resulting in a smoother, more toned look.

However, laser therapy has the potential to exacerbate your keloids by increasing scarring and redness. Even though these side effects are sometimes better than the primary scar, you should still expect to scar. Other forms of skin scarring can be treated using laser therapy, which has comparable advantages and hazards.

The treated area will be itchy, rough, and swollen after laser resurfacing or radiation therapy. Your doctor may apply or request that you apply a thick ointment to the treated region, or you may be required to cover that region with a waterproof or airtight dressing. Your doctor will prescribe a few over-the-counter pain relievers to help you feel better. To reduce swelling and redness, apply an ice pack to the affected region. If you observe anything strange or unusual about the color or texture of the treated region, or if you are in excruciating pain, you should call your doctor right once.

Topical medications

Treatment with topical medications

Keloids do not have a single therapy, and most therapies do not provide satisfactory outcomes. It is possible to mix two or more therapies. If you opt to treat a keloid scar, the best outcomes will come if you begin therapy as soon as the keloid emerges. The following therapies are available:

  • Dressings 

Studies have indicated that moist wound dressings consisting of silicone gel sheets can lessen the size of keloids over time. This procedure is painless and safe.

  • Corticosteroid injections 

Injections of triamcinolone acetonide or similar corticosteroid drug into keloids are usually repeated every four to six weeks. Although this therapy helps reduce keloid size and inflammation, injections are painful.

  • Compression 

This entails applying constant pressure 24 hours a day, seven days a week for six to twelve months with a bandage or tape. A keloid can shrink as a result of this compression. After one year of compression, a clip is known as a Zimmer splint generally lowers the size of keloids that occur at the site of an ear-piercing by at least 50%. There are Zimmer splints that look like earrings.

  • Cryosurgery 

This liquid nitrogen freezing procedure is repeated every 20 to 30 days. It has the potential to lighten the skin’s hue, which restricts the treatment's use.

Alternative treatments for keloids include moisturizing oils, interferon, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy injections like bleomycin and fluorouracil.

Oral medications

Treatment with oral medications

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