Skin Pigmentation

Pigmentation is a term that refers to the process of coloring anything. The color of your skin is affected by skin pigmentation disorders. It is a pigment that gives your skin its color. Melanin is produced by special cells in the skin. Its production is affected when these cells become damaged or diseased.

Some pigmentation diseases affect just a small portion of the skin. Others have an impact on your entire body.Your skin will darken if your body produces too much melanin. Pregnancy, Addison's illness, and excessive sun exposure can all darken your skin.


Everything you should know about Skin Pigmentation

The color of your skin is determined by the quantity of melanin in your body. Melanin is a pigment found in human skin, hair, and eyes that gives them their varied tints and hues. The quantity of melanin in the skin is what determines color (pigmentation). Because of variations in your body’s melanin production, your skin may grow darker or lighter. The skin would be pale white without melanin, with pinkish tones generated by blood flow.

Melanin is produced in small amounts by fair-skinned individuals, moderate quantities by darker-skinned individuals, and a large quantity by extremely dark-skinned individuals. Albinism is characterized by a lack of melanin in the skin, resulting in a white or light pink appearance. This might be caused by several things, ranging from your genes to acne or sun exposure-related skin damage.

Melanin is made by specialized cells called melanocytes, found in the deepest layer of the skin’s outer layer, termed the basal layer, amid the other cells. Melanin is created and then spreads to more skin cells in the vicinity.

Types of skin pigmentation

There are many distinct forms of skin pigment disorders, each with its own set of symptoms and side effects.

  • Hyperpigmentation – 

Due to an excessively large quantity of melanin or other pigments in the skin, hyperpigmentation causes the skin to become darker or different in hue.

  • Freckles

Freckles are small brown spots on your skin, often in areas that have been exposed to the sun. Ephelides, or freckles, are the most prevalent kind of pigmentation. These appear after prolonged sun exposure, especially if you have fair skin. During the summer, they look darker, and in the winter, they disappear. Freckles are also influenced by genetics.

  • Post-inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH)

This is a reaction to skin damage, which can be caused by acne, burns, friction, or severe clinical procedures, including chemical peels, dermabrasion, laser, and IPL. Although it might reoccur, this ailment usually cures with time and responds to topical medications.

  • Melasma

Melasma (brown skin) is a pigmentation condition of the skin that affects a large number of people. It’s also known as chloasma or the pregnancy mask, and it’s mostly a problem for women. People with darker skin tones are more prone to develop melasma. It causes dark or grey areas of skin to darken on the face as the primary symptom. However, sun-exposed areas of the body may be impacted as well. Patches that are darker than the natural skin tone and symmetrical on both sides of the face or torso are its common symptoms.

  • Sunburn

Sunburn is a sort of reddish skin discoloration caused by excessive sun exposure, which is more frequent among fairer skin tones.

  • Age Spots

Skin damage from sun exposure causes age spots, liver spots, and lentigines. The face, neck, décolleté, and arms are all affected. The best approach to avoid obtaining these age spots is to start protecting yourself at a young age.

  • Hypopigmentation

Because there is an abnormally low quantity of melanin in hypopigmented skin, it is lighter in hue.

  • Albinism

Albinism is a hereditary condition caused by mutations in genes that control the generation of melanin. The body is unable to manufacture or transport melanin due to many genetic abnormalities. Albinism is characterized by a lack of color in the hair, skin, or eyes. These signs and symptoms might affect the whole body or just a small area of skin.

  • Vitiligo

Vitiligo (smooth white areas) is a skin pigmentation condition that lasts for years. Vitiligo affects about 1% to 2% of the world’s population, and instances are evenly distributed across all racial groups. Vitiligo has been found to create psychological discomfort in persons who have it, even though it has no negative health repercussions. It is characterized by a total loss of color in the skin, resulting in white areas. It can affect little or big areas of skin and can appear anywhere on the body.

If you choose to cure skin pigmentation using home treatments, you will spend very little money. Laser procedures to cure skin pigmentation, on the other hand, are costly, ranging from approx. Rs. 3000 to Rs. 5000 for a single session, with the patient required to undergo as many sessions as the doctor deems necessary.

The recovery time and results of laser skin resurfacing vary based on the kind of laser utilized and the size of the region to be treated. The most intrusive procedures can offer dramatic results, but they can also take many weeks to recover from. However, some blemishes may be reduced with a milder laser skin rejuvenation procedure that requires little or no downtime.

Because home therapies for skin pigmentation are frequently ineffectual, any effects acquired via them are not necessarily lasting. A few sessions of laser skin pigmentation therapy, on the other hand, can effectively decrease skin patches and pigmentation while also ensuring that the patches will not return.

There are no negative effects if the patient uses home treatments to cure skin pigmentation. If the patient chooses laser skin pigmentation therapy, however, there are several negative effects to consider.

Lasers are efficient in treating hyperpigmentation, but they are not without risks. Redness of the skin, swelling of the treated region, and moderate discomfort akin to a light sunburn are all common adverse effects. In addition, burning, scarring, or a change in skin color have all been reported in rare situations employing laser skin resurfacing.

Moreover, when lasers are utilized incorrectly during face hyperpigmentation treatments, they can induce eye burns, leading to irreversible blindness. Also, lasers that generate a lot of heat might cause your skin and tissue to overheat, producing redness, blistering, and burning.

Hyperpigmentation can be caused by a variety of factors, depending on the kind. The following are the most prevalent causes of hyperpigmentation:

  • Excess melanin production is a frequent cause of hyperpigmentation. Melanin is a pigment found in the skin that gives it its color. Melanocytes, which are skin cells, generate it. The production of melanin in your body might be affected by a variety of illnesses or causes.
  • Hyperpigmentation is a side effect of several drugs. As a side effect, several chemotherapy medications might produce hyperpigmentation.
  • In certain women, pregnancy alters hormone levels and can impair melanin formation.
  • Hyperpigmentation can be seen in areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, neck, and hands, as well as areas exposed to friction, such as the elbows and knees, due to a rare endocrine illness called Addison’s disease.
  • Hyperpigmentation is caused by an increase in the hormone level in your body, which causes an increase in melanin production.
  • An increase in melanin can also be caused by too much sun exposure.

Melanocytes, which are unique cells found in the outer layer of your skin that create melanin, are responsible for your skin tone. In addition, organelles (or mini-organs of the cell) called melanosomes are found inside these unique skin cells. The quantity, size, and function of these small melanin manufacturers all play a role in your skin color.

Eumelanin and pheomelanin are the two main kinds of melanin:

  • Eumelanin 

Eumelanin is a brownish-black substance. It protects your skin by reducing the amount of damaging ultraviolet (UV) rays that may get through and collecting up reactive oxygen radicals, which, if left unchecked, may damage your cells and DNA, potentially leading to chronic diseases like cancer.

  • Pheomelanin 

The hue of pheomelanin, on the other hand, is yellow and red. Unlike eumelanin, pheomelanin offers minimal UV protection and may even encourage reactive oxygen radicals and the resulting damage.

The balance of various forms of melanin in your skin determines your skin color. This varies based on hormones, interactions with other cells in your body, the influence of certain genes, and other factors.

Although not all causes of hyperpigmentation can be avoided, there are certain actions you may take to reduce the risk of hyperpigmentation in specific situations:

  • Renew your skin’s radiance

Exfoliation to eliminate dead skin cells; epidermal stimulation for new cell development; antioxidant qualities for cellular rejuvenation and repair; enhanced capillary blood flow; and penetrating moisture and nutrients to replenish all seven layers of skin tissue are all necessary to maintain the skin looking young, radiant, and blemish-free.

  • Stay out of the sun

Limit your time in the sun and stay out of direct sunlight. If you want to avoid skin darkening, use sunscreen and cover up with caps and clothing covering your skin. You may also use hydrating treatments to reduce the damage caused by UV rays.

A wide-brimmed hat will protect your face and head. To protect your skin from damaging UV rays, choose sun protection with at least SPF 15 and wear it every day, especially in the colder months.

  • Don’t touch your skin unnecessarily

Picking at scabs, squeezing a pimple, or scratching a mosquito bite might be appealing. However, you should avoid doing so since it may exacerbate the inflammation that causes black spots to form on your skin. Also, avoid touching your skin with your unclean hands.

  • Choose the appropriate product 

One must test items based on their skin type and pigmentation level. Depending on your skin tone, the best pigmentation treatment technique and product may change. As a result, before deciding on therapy, make sure to check with your doctor to see if it is safe for you.

  • Examine your eating habits

Your skin’s health is influenced by the foods you consume. So check to see if you’re consuming healthy meals. It may aid in the prevention of hyperpigmentation by reducing the effects of cellular stress induced by hormone imbalances, infection, and sun exposure.

Pomegranates, spinach, kale, and carrots are among the foods that may assist in lessening the appearance of hyperpigmentation. They may supply vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and good fats to your body, which your skin needs. Drinking enough water is also crucial. Because soybeans, flaxseeds, and garlic contain estrogen, it’s best to avoid them.

  • When to see a doctor

If a patch of your skin or a mole changes color, texture, or form and does not dissipate, call your doctor to schedule an appointment. This will assist you in ruling out any significant skin problems and get you on the path to treatment much faster.

Because the black patches are visible, people are frightened to mingle and try all they can to get rid of them. Unfortunately, this frequently leads to conversations and requests for assistance from non-experts and the formation of misunderstandings about the situation.

  • My obstinate pigmentation can be removed with a face cleanse or exfoliation.
  • You will be pigmentation-free if you avoid the sun at all costs.
  • Because you won't be exposed to the sun when you're indoors, you won't get pigmentation and won't need to wear sunscreen.
  • The blemishes on my skin are solely due to my diet.
  • It won't return after it's gone. 
  • There is nothing you can do about the pigmentation that occurs after pregnancy.
  • Pigmentation is a hereditary condition that cannot be avoided.

Urban Skin and Hair Clinic Unique Approach To Treat Skin Pigmentation

A holistic strategy is required to treat and manage additional pigmentation. Unlike tanning, which can be handled with cosmetics, pigmentation needs extra attention. Its primary cause is located deep within the skin, necessitating the advice and treatment of a dermatologist.

The Pigmentation Reduction System is a game-changing treatment that combines specialized services and products with potent ingredients. It removes tan, pigmentation marks, dark spots, and age spots from the skin, leaving it clear and luminous. This technique is effective for the face and neck, as well as any other part of the body.


Even if your skin pigmentation condition isn’t harmful to your health, dealing with it might be challenging. Any change in skin tone might be alarming or distressing. It’s natural to feel concerned, ashamed, or upset about coping with skin damage or a chronic skin disease that causes you to modify your look. 

The emotional turmoil might have a significant impact on your mental health. The good news is that many skin pigmentation issues aren’t life-threatening and may be addressed medically or covered up with cosmetics. When dealing with a skin pigmentation condition, it’s critical to have a good attitude and realize that every skin is beautiful.

Get world-class skin pigmentation treatment at PCMC, Pune. Urban Skin and Hair Clinic is brainchild over by expert dermatologist Dr. Kiran Chotaliya.


Treatments with therapies and lasers

Skin pigmentation markings, also known as freckles and age spots, are a buildup of melanocytes (melanin-producing cells) underneath the skin that appear as freckles and age spots on the hands, face, and body. Depending on the kind of pigmentation, several types of lasers can be employed. 

The Alexandrite 755nm Laser Pigmentation Removal therapy successfully eradicates pigmentation in superficial lesions in as few as 1-3 sessions. The therapy will also be determined by the region to be treated, the kind of pigmentation, and the amount of time it takes to recover. One of the most modern procedures for reducing undesirable pigmentation on the skin, such as age spots, sun spots, and freckles, is laser therapy.

Topical medications

Treatment with topical medications

In the epidermal kind of melasma, topical treatments are far more effective.

  • Azelaic acid 

Azelaic acid is a nine-carbon dicarboxylic acid that inhibits tyrosinase competitively. Because of its impact on tyrosinase, azelaic acid has also been used to treat hyperpigmentary illnesses, including melasma. In addition, you can also treat acne post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation with it.

  • Retinoids 

Retinoids, such as tretinoin, were initially employed as penetration enhancers in conjunction with HQ, but they were subsequently shown to have their own impact on melanogenesis. Tretinoin causes fast pigment loss via epidermopoiesis, and accelerated epidermal turnover reduces keratinocyte-melanocyte contact time. By lowering tyrosinase activity, retinoic acid prevents UVB-induced pigmentation. On tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related proteins, the acid has a posttranscriptional effect.

  • Glycolic acid 

Glycolic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid with skin-lightening properties that are frequently mixed with additional treatments at a concentration of 5-10%. Its action might be attributed to epidermal remodeling and faster desquamation, resulting in rapid pigment dispersion on pigmentary lesions. It also inhibits tyrosinase, which lowers melanin production in melanocytes.

Oral medications

Treatment with oral medications

Oral supplements such as glutathione, amino acids, vitamins, flavonoids, carotenoids, and metformin have been used to treat idiopathic, actinic, and some kinds of metabolically induced skin hyperpigmentation.

  • Glutathione 

Glutathione is the most often utilized systemic skin lightening agent (Malathi). It's a tri-peptide antioxidant made up of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine produced by plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. It is considered to decrease melanin formation through a variety of methods. These include binding and chelating copper to stop tyrosinase from working, as well as quenching the free radicals and peroxides that contribute to tyrosinase activation (Villarama). Glutathione is found in moderate to high concentrations in fruits and vegetables, as well as in freshly cooked meats.

  • Amino Acids 

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and they play a part in almost every biological function that takes place in our bodies. The order in which they mix dictates the type of protein that emerges and how it functions. Complete proteins include all nine necessary amino acids. Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products are examples of complete proteins. Quinoa, buckwheat, and soybeans are all good sources of necessary protein for vegans.

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